Lambda FAQ (V1.0)

Lambda is a fast, safe, and scalable blockchain infrastructure project, which provides decentralized applications (DAPPs) data storage capabilities with unlimited scalability and fulfills services such as multi-chain data co-storage, cross-chain data management, data privacy protection, Proof of Recoverability of data (POR), Provable Data Possession (PDP), and distributed intelligent computing through logic decoupling and independent implementation of Lambda Chain and Lambda DB.

What is your project type? Is this a Protocol, Infrastructure or a Platform?

Lambda is a blockchain infrastructure project.

What is your project current competitor in the market now?( can we remove this question)

We dont believe in any type of competitions. we would like to think that Lambda and Filecoin are like classmates trying to address the same question with different approaches.

What makes your project advantages than other competitors?

We use Lambda Chain’s homogeneous multi-chain structure design to randomly select a set of verifier nodes to check the integrity of the data when we read it. Through separate validation of multiple verification nodes and Byzantine Fault Intolerance (BFT) consensus, we can complete Proof of Recoverability of data (POR) verification and Provable of Data Possession (PDP), which is our advantage over IPFS. IPFS currently has no mature chain design and complete data storage proof mechanism. In the FileCoin white paper, the proof of storage of data is simply described as Proof-of-Replication and Proof-of-Spacetime, but no specific implementation method is given. We have reason to believe that, due to the limitation of the blockchain technology at the time of preparation of the IPFS white paper, IPFS cannot use chain nodes to verify the integrity of data, and at the same time, it is unable to allow the client side to verify the integrity of data. Therefore, the FileCoin white paper only gives ambiguity explanation on its ability to support the important data integrity requirement.

In addition, our project advantages can be demonstrated by the following,

– Our innovative design includes the separation of blockchain and storage chain

– We have addressed the challenge of Provable Data Possession (PDP), with a perfect integration with blockchain.

– Our solution can support high throughput data storage and retrieval by leveraging Sharding technology, which provides possibilities for future DAPP application scenarios.

– By leveraging the subchain technology and cooperating with open source community, we will be able to offer an ecosystem platform with data collection, storage, computing, exchange capabilities in addition to the core block file storage capability.

What is your project token type? ERC20 ?

After our main chain online, LAMB token will the native digital currency of our main network. Before that, our Token is based on ERC20.

When is the target date for an ICO?

We are currently in private sales to qualified institutional investors only. An ICO is in planning with target launch in Q3.

Who are your current investors?

We have secured support from reputable funds focusing on blockchain investment, including Dfund, Zhen Fund, Funcity Capital, Metropolis VC, Sparkling Star Capital, etc. We continue in active discussion with selected blockchain funds in US and Asia which can support our growth by leveraging their strategic resources.

What is your project total tokens?

10 billion LAMB tokens

What is your project vesting period for team and advisor?

3 years vesting for the project team

Do your project got Prototype/MVP/working product?

Yes, we have MVP

Can I have more details about roadmap?

Please refer to details in section IV Technology Roadmap of our whitepaper (http://www.lambda.im/doc/Lambda-WhitePaper-en.pdf)

Can I have more details about the team?

Our core team consists of serial entrepreneur in infrastructure software, avid open source community contributors, and seasoned digital marketing professionals. Please refer to details in section VI Core Team of our whitepaper (http://www.lambda.im/doc/Lambda-WhitePaper-en.pdf)

Where did the company register? What did you do in compliance?

The foundation is registered in Singapore, we have corresponding and compliant regulations in accordance with local laws and relevant regional policies, and there is also an internal compliance team to review, because the policies of various countries and regions are subject to change, and there may be regulatory compliance. so we may be subject to regulatory compliance adjustments.

What is the use of Lamb Token?

Lamb is a Utility token in the Lambda ecosystem and is mainly used in the following areas:

  • Use Lamb Tokens for Lambda Eco services
  • A certain amount of tokens need to be pledged when providing storage services in the system.
  • As a verifier node in the system, a certain number of tokens need to be pledged.
  • The verification node can receive a certain number of tokens as a bookkeeping bonus.
  • The storage node receives a certain amount of tokens according to the storage capacity and the SLA of the service.
  • The other roles involved in the Lambda ecosystem also receive a certain amount of tokens based on their contribution.

What is the difference between Lambda and IPFS?

IPFS is a distributed file system. FileCoin is the billing system for this set of file systems. In fact, it is relatively simple to explain. The proof of ownership of any data can be abstracted as a challenging process for both parties. The same is true regardless of the usage scenario of BlockChain. In general, it is the challenger who initiates the challenge, the storage side generates Proof, and then challenge the process of verification. At the time of the first version of the FileCoin white paper, only the Client could challenge due to the inherent risks of the design of the chain, and the Client challenge approach, due to the lack of a consensus mechanism, can only be used to implement a network disk such as Sia and cannot be used for Storage

Therefore, for FileCoin, since neither the chain node nor the Client can initiate a challenge, the storage node can only prove its own time and space for the data held by itself. Therefore, FileCoin’s consensus, consistency, validity, and data integrity are tightly coupled implementations.

In what way does Lambda surpass FileCoin?

FileCoin now has no code, it has been pushing from the middle of the year to the end of the year and is said to take much longer.

You cant compare code with FileCoin without its source code. we built a lab together with Beijing Institute of Technology. The team also has a lot of blockchain and also distributed storage experts. Moreover, FileCoin has been skipping for so long. At present, no matter whether the benchmark or the plan is better than them, please believe that our team has the technical strength and always pay attention to our project progress.

Connect with us.

🔹 Official website: http://www.lambda.im
🔹Telegram Community : https://t.me/HelloLambda
🔹Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Lambdaim
🔹LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/lambdaim/
🔹Twitter: https://twitter.com/Lambdaim
🔹White Paper : http://www.lambda.im/doc/Lambda-WhitePaper-en.pdf

Do you know IPFS can not mine?

Do you know IPFS can not mine?

Recently, the IPFS is extremely hot. There are also many so-called IPFS mining machines on the market with very expensive price. There are even machines claiming blessing by the famous temple. So can the IPFS mining machine really mine? What is the relationship between IPFS and Filecoin?

Today, we will take a look at IPFS and Filecoin in this article, and we hope to help you clarify the relationship between the two.

IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) is a network transport protocol designed to create persistent and distributed storage and shared files. It is a content-addressable peer-to-peer hypermedia distribution protocol. Does it sound quite mysterious? In fact, it is easy to understand if you have been exposed to BT network. Simply speaking, IPFS is based on the integration of mature technologies, including KAD network (mature application in eMule, etc.); BitTorrent transmission technology (commonly known as BT protocol); The incentive mechanism optimization inside IPFS is also called BitSwap; Merkle DAG data structure (from the data structure of the famous open source project Git); self-certified file system SFS. To sum up, IPFS uses BitSwap to transmit Git Objects through KAD network addressing and accesses resources through the naming system, IPFS integrates and optimizes existing technologies.

The data of today’s commonly used APPs, websites, and social network are stored in a centralized server cluster, and then accessed through URLs, URIs, and domain name systems. IPFS is not based on such domain name addressing, but content addressing, it will calculate a hash value from the content of a resource, this value directly reflects the content of this resource. When the resource is large, the IPFS will shard the resource, calculates the hash accordingly, and organizes the resource file by Merkle DAG (Git data format). A single resource after sharding may be stored in one node or multiple nodes, and may have multiple copies to ensure resource retrievability even when some nodes become invalid.

When an IPFS client needs to use a resource, it uses the hash value of the resource. It finds the node it is in through the DHT distributed hash table, returns the resource, and uses it locally through the BitSwap protocol (based on the BT protocol). One of the IPFS content is self-certified SFS. Simply put, it is self-certified naming. For example, you can use your identity to define a directory. When accessing, the node can determine whether you have permission to access the directory or resources in the directory. The use of IPFS is transparent to the user, which means that the user only needs to put the resource files that need to be stored in the directory specified by himself. The IPFS client will automatically shard the files, calculate HASH separately, and through the KAD network store the pieces of file in the DHT distributed hash table of the whole network, where file transfer is transmitted through the BitSwap P2P network.

The existing technologies that IPFS relies on are related technologies of the previous generation P2P networks. The most direct use cases are large file distribution and storage. It can be understood as a super network-based disk. Currently, all IPFS nodes provide storage space while they also need other nodes to help for storage. This is basically the same as the sharing spirit of P2P software such as BitTorrent, eMule, and Bit Comet, that is, “everyone for me, I am for everyone.” You need someone else’s storage help and you also need to share the same.

In essence, IPFS transforms the on-demand download of the original P2P software into long-term storage of resources. Therefore, long-term storage requires QoS guarantee. And without that, no user is willing to store their valuable data or resource content in IPFS. So for a loose IPFS network, the user’s arbitrary exit, network quality uncertainty, storage location uncertainty, hardware resource uneven performance, hardware resource performance jitter (non-exclusive hardware), these problems make difficult for IPFS to store resource storage that has strong requirements for QoS. In other words, there is no way to use it in the commercial field. Unless IPFS is deployed by a commercial organization, which takes the responsibility of ensuring the quality of the hardware environment and resources used. We are starting to see use cases where IPFS is deployed as a private installation.

Filecoin is a decentralized storage network, a.k.a. Filecoin’s blockchain, Filecoin has launched a very successful ICO, and the token name is FIL. Filecoin and IPFS are two different projects — IPFS is the underlying protocol and it does not have ICO. Miners in the FIlecoin blockchain can obtain FIL by providing storage to customers. On the other side, customers with storage needs can hire a miner to store or distribute data by spending FIL.

It should be noted that the future value of IPFS is not the same as that of Filecoin. Many applications can be built on the IPFS protocol, or a lot of projects like Filecoin can be built on IPFS. At present, some have already been implemented. For example, Akasha is a social blog creation platform based on Ethereum and IPFS, and the EOS underlying storage is also adopted by the IPFS protocol. These applications don’t have much to do with Filecoin, and users of these applications won’t pay for FileCoin.

Filecoin is one of the projects based on IPFS that has done ICO. In essence, Filecoin is an incentive layer for IPFS networks. As mentioned above, IPFS can be understood as a BT software. The problem that BT software has not solved for many years is how to motivate resources contributors, how to motivate participants to provide better disk, better network, and better user experience with stable quality.

Filecoin Decentralized Storage Network (DSN), is addressing the needs for both storage (write to store) and search (read to retrieve). As mentioned above, IPFS is a P2P network with the sharing spirit of “everyone for me, I am for everyone”, however it is difficult to accomplish in any commercial world. Filecoin proposes an incentive mechanism to reward those miners who can provide better quality storage service, better search capability with strong network or performance response.

Filecoin proposes to solve three main problems:

1) Solve the proof of copying, which is how to prove that a file is stored by a dedicated device.

2) PoSt time and space proof, how to prove that a miner has stored customer data for a period of time.

3) How to replace PoW with PoSt becomes a new consensus mechanism for accounting.

“Reproduction Proof” (PoRep) is a new type of storage proof. It allows the server (prover P) to convince the user (validator V) that some data D has been copied to its only dedicated physical storage. The approach is an interactive protocol.

When the prover P: (a) promises to store multiple different copies (independent physical copies) of a certain data D, and then (b) convince the validator V through the response protocol, P does already store each copy. “Time and Space Proof”, which allows the validator to check if the storage provider has stored his outsourced data for a period of time. More articles will follow to explain details of the principles.

Filecoin released the first edition of the white paper in 2014. It has been 4 years since then. There is no exact timeline for the testing version release. The Filecoin-based DApp currently has no news or progress. According to the Filecoin policy, only after storing users’ data then miner can get the FIL token. However in China, so called IPFS / Filecoin mining machines have been on sale already with crazy marketing promotion. Those investors in mining machines are anxiously waiting for the go-live of Filecoin and after that they need to continue to wait for storage consumption by DApp, then FIL tokens may appear. When will be the payback time for those investors, no one knows and only time will tell……

Lambda Project

A blockchain-based infrastructure service providing unlimited storage capability

want to know more about us? check out the social links of Lambda.
Official website: http://www.lambda.im
🔹Telegram Community : https://t.me/HelloLambda
🔹Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Lambdaim
🔹LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/lambdaim/
🔹Twitter: https://twitter.com/Lambdaim
🔹White Paper : http://www.lambda.im/doc/Lambda-WhitePaper-en.pdf

Lambda supports VV Share to create a complete blockchain economic sharing platform

On June 29th, the VV Share White Paper and Community Launch Conference was successfully concluded in Wuzhen, China. VV Share is a social science experiment jointly proposed by Chen Weixing and Yang Jun. Chen, Kuaidi Dache founder, is a well-known entrepreneur and investor in China. VV Share is a complete blockchain economic sharing platform. The platform will start with the VV Go in the ride sharing field and later venture to other sectors including bed & breakfast stays, takeout, and airline tickets sharing. At the press conference, Lambda and VV Share, Slife, the FunCity Digital Economy Research Institute jointly announced the launch of FLOW, a shared economy public-chain alliance, to build a future shared economy chain infrastructure. Lambda will link all affiliate economies (public chains) through the BCP agreement to provide decentralized storage services for the entire ecosystem.

Lambda supports VV Share to create a fair and enthusiastic “labor” community

Chen Weixing said: “We expect people to work and create based on trust, and create a prosperous society.” At the press conference that evening, the “Taxis Chain” program was officially named “VV Share”, relating it with the blockchain world. Chen Weixing’s interpretation of the meaning of the brand is full of ideals: “V”stands for the victory of laborers, citing the famous gestures of Winston Churchill during World War II, expressing the determination to make wealth truly shared; “VV” denotes victory multiplied and a win-win situation for all members of the upcoming platform, and “Share” represents the core value — the spirit of sharing.

Chen Weixing said the planned blockchain app will have three core elements of a sharing economy built on blockchain, 1) a marketplace shared by all the laborers contributing to the platform; 2) a tokenized economy; and 3) a governable public chain with cross-chain interoperability. VV Share will begin with ride sharing (VV Go), and then move on to other sectors including bed & breakfast stays (VV Stay), takeout (VV Eats), airline tickets sharing (VV Fly), etc. The platform will also be open to the public to allow developers to build other apps such as wallet, crypto exchanges and data analysis on top of it to gradually improve the ecosystem and create a fair and enthusiastic “labor” community.

The independence of various chains is one of the important reasons why most projects currently do not serve the real business applications well. In order to solve this problem, VV Share will also initiate the establishment of an economy public chain alliance FLOW, through the BCP protocol to support cross-chain, thereby achieving asset transfer and state transfer between the chains, as well as supporting the exchange between different economies. Lambda, a blockchain infrastructure project offering unlimited storage capacity, and SLife, the commercial trading system under the blockchain, will be the first participants of VV Share. Lambda project co-founder Gao Haiqiang (second from left) was also invited to participate in this conference.

The core issue of decentralized storage is proof of data integrity

As we all know, the essence of the Internet is the connection between people and information, whether it is centralized or decentralized applications. Leaving data and storage, the Internet will become a “rootless”. So for the big ecosystem of VV Share, infrastructure services are the top priority. However, because the essence of all public chains is now a decentralized distributed ledger, it is a simple linear table of transaction records. The only data that can be stored is the address of the transaction parties and the transaction amount. Other data cannot be stored effectively. Without the support of the underlying data, the actual use of the blockchain is greatly limited, so storage services play a very important role in the entire infrastructure.

Chen Weixing said that the reason why the Lambda project was chosen is that it is one of the few technical teams in China that can provide “data integrity proof” solution. Lambda plays a very important role in the whole VV Share ecosystem. We also analyzed and compared many storage projects in China and abroad, and found that many projects have no consideration for basic data integrity, privacy and security, and even lack of many basic knowledge of blockchain. Lambda provides a simple and clear logic that demonstrates the integrity, security, and privacy of data storage in a decentralized scenario. Our team and the Lambda team conducted technical exchanges and discussions for four months. Based on an overall consideration, we decided to partner with Lambda. In the future, in the field of data sharing and data trading, VV Share and Lambda will have more cooperation.

Today’s decentralized applications generally lack the ability to address data storage requirements, and the core issue of decentralized storage is the proof of data integrity. There is no possibility of decentralized storage without integrity proof. Lambda is unique in that it ensures the integrity and recoverability of data stored on the “non-trusted nodes” by verifying the node’s consensus to complete the Provable Data Possession (PDP) and Proofs of Retrievability (POR).

He Xiaoyang, the founder of the Lambda project, congratulated VV Share on its successful release of whitepaper and looked forward to the future of big ecosystem of the blockchain economic sharing platform.

“From winter to summer, Lambda, VV Share, and Flow team spent countless days and nights of sleepless work in Hangzhou. Today’s VV Share white paper is officially released, and Lambda, VV Share, and Flow will work together to provide a technical and economic infrastructure for the VV community.”

About Lambda

Lambda is a high-speed, secure and scalable blockchain infrastructure project. Through the logical decoupling and separate implementation of Lambda Chain and Lambda FS, we provide infinitely scalable data storage capabilities to decentralized applications and achieve data integrity proof, multi-chain data cooperative storage, cross-chain data management, data privacy protection and other services.

On July 4th, Lambda, t announced the financing of several top investment institutions including FunCity Capital, Ceyuan Digital Assets, BlockVC, Bluehill, and DATA Foundation. Earlier on June 19th, Lambda announced that it had received tens of millions of RMB financing from Zhen Fund, ZhenFund, Metropolis VC, and Dfund..

He Xiaoyang, the founder of Lambda, is a well-known Chinese infrastructure software expert, a member of the JVM community. Prior to his entrepreneur experience, Mr. He worked as a R&D software engineer at BEA Systems and Oracle. In 2008, Mr. He founded OneAPM and in 2014, the application performance management product based on SaaS model was launched. In one and a half years, OneAPM has completed four rounds of financing led by well-known VC such as Matrix China, Chengwei Capital and Qiming Venture. In 2015, Mr. He was selected as an entrepreneur’s 35 “Under 35” list. The WeChat public account “He Xiaoyang Reading Notes” has a wide influence in the developer community.

Official website: http://www.lambda.im

🔹Telegram Community : https://t.me/HelloLambda

🔹Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Lambdaim.

🔹LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/lambdaim/

🔹Twitter: https://twitter.com/Lambdaim.

🔹White Paper : http://www.lambda.im/doc/Lambda-WhitePaper-en.pdf

Blockchain storage project Lambda has received investment from several top institutions

Blockchain storage project Lambda has received investment from several top institutions

On July 4th, Lambda, the blockchain infrastructure that provides unlimited storage capacity, once again announced the financing of several top investment institutions including FunCity Capital, Ceyuan Digital Assets, BlockVC, Bluehill, and DATA Foundation. Earlier on June 19th, Lambda announced that it had received tens of millions of RMB financing from Zhen Fund, Metropolis VC, and Dfund..

Focusing on blockchain infrastructure, the Lambda project is favored by many capitals

He Xiaoyang, the founder of the Lambda project, completed the four rounds of financing led by well-known investment institutions such as Matrix China, Chengwei Capital, and Qiming Venture in a year and a half, and created a miracle of fund raising in the enterprise software sector in China. In 2017, He Xiaoyang gradually faded out of OneAPM’s work, began to embark on a new journey of entrepreneurship, began to work in the blockchain infrastructure field, and created the blockchain storage project Lambda. In just two weeks, the Lambda project completed fund raising from a group of well-known investment institutions, and once again staged a “speed reading and passion” in the blockchain era.

Founded in October 2016, FunCity Capital was founded by Chen Weixing, the founder of KuaiDi. It is an asset management company specializing in Internet finance, artificial intelligence, blockchain, and smart transportation. The business covers early VC, PE, public market secondary offering, M&A, and PIPE business. FunCity Capital’s investment portfolios include Binance, 51 Credit Card, and Fang Cloud.

Ceyuan Digital Assets is an investment fund that focuses on early investment in the blockchain industry. It aims to promote technological innovation and invest in quality projects in the development of blockchain ecosystem. The Fund has participated in the development of several well-known projects in the areas of public chains, DAPP, and exchanges, with professional investment judgment and rich industry resources. Ceyuan Ventures is a venture capital firm headquartered in Beijing in 2005, focusing on early investments in the information technology and Internet industries. The company is committed to excellence in entrepreneurial teams, advanced science and technology, and innovative business innovation. Ceyuan Ventures has invested in blockchain since 2013. Early investments include OKCoin, Bitcoin China, and Dfinity.

BlockVC is a leading global blockchain venture capital and advisory research organization that covers the basic public chain, application agreements and financial services in the blockchain ecosystem and provides a full range of post-investment services for selected projects. Its portfolios have global influence. The global investment network covers Singapore, London, Silicon Valley and other places, and has established close strategic partnerships with top projects and institutions in many countries.

Technology-based, decentralized storage services for blockchain ecosystem

Lambda is a high-speed, secure and scalable blockchain infrastructure project. Through the logical decoupling and separate implementation of Lambda Chain and Lambda FS, we provide infinitely scalable data storage capabilities to decentralized applications and achieve data integrity proof, multi-chain data cooperative storage, cross-chain data management, data privacy protection and other services.

On June 29th, Lambda announced that it will jointly launch FLOW, a shared economy public chain alliance, with VV Share, Slife, and FunCity Digital Economy Research Institute, to build a future shared economy chain infrastructure. Lambda will link all affiliate economies (public chains) through the BCP agreement to provide decentralized storage services for the entire ecosystem. Chen Weixing, founder of FunCity Capital and founder of VV Share, said that the Lambda project is one of the few technical teams in China that can provide “data integrity proof”. The technical background of the founding team is very strong and Lambda will play an important role in the whole VV Share ecosystem.

He Xiaoyang, founder of Lambda, said: I believe that only brave people can succeed. I used to be confused, but after entering the field of blockchain, it inspired my second entrepreneurial enthusiasm. We spent ten years on the first startup and have been dealing with distributed systems and distributed storage. In the blockchain era, we still choose to start with the areas we are most familiar with. I believe in the power of accumulation and precipitation, and I believe that time will give us the best recognition. Of course, I am especially grateful to so many investment institutions for their recognition and trust in our Lambda team.

✅ Official Website and Social links.
🔹 Official website: http://www.lambda.im
🔹Telegram Community : https://t.me/HelloLambda
🔹Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Lambdaim
🔹LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/lambdaim/
🔹Twitter: https://twitter.com/Lambdaim
🔹White Paper : http://www.lambda.im/doc/Lambda-WhitePaper-en.pdf

Oracle Cluster, Distributed Database and Block Chain

The block chain has become more popular and is being accepted by more and more people from the the society, and is gradually becoming a new trend and is changing the future. In this process, block chain technology has also made rapid development which includes smart contract, consensus mechanism, fragmentation and cross-chain and more to come.

As a veteran who has struggled in database field for more than 10 years, the essence of block chain is actually a multi-active distributed database. Many technologies in the block chain have also been used in many applications during the long evolution of the database. In practice, in order to better understand the block chain, I outlined the evolution of the mainstream system architecture over the past decade or so since 2000. We will be divided into three stages to elaborate:

Inthe first phase, the era of Oracle Cluster.

If you want to choose a mature database solution that can support tens of thousands of transactions per second. Engineers will definitely recommend Oracle. The main structures of the system during this period are as follows:

The year 2001 was a special year for Oracle Corporation, in which Oracle released the classic Oracle 9i version of the Oracle database product. In this version of the product, Oracle greatly enhanced the Real Application Cluster (RAC), enabling Oracle to complete the process of converting from a single host node to multiple nodes in a production environment.

The RAC technology effectively solves the bottleneck of the single-node operation of the database in the past, improves the concurrent load capacity and high availability of the database system, and satisfies the urgent need to manage the exponential data growth in the enterprise development process. Therefore, this program has been widely applied to various fields such as operators, banks, securities, etc., of course, including Internet giants such as Alibaba and JD.

With the upgrade of the version, the peak value of Oracle 10G cluster node theory has been expanded to more than 100. But for reasons such as high cost of deploying devices (minicomputers and storage), it is impossible for enterprises to accomplish this level of deployment. From the referenced data its understood that some domestic enterprises have applied clusters of 6–8 nodes in actual business.

Despite the wide range of applications, with the further development of the domestic Internet business, some problems of the Oracle cluster have gradually emerged, which also prompted the emergence of a vigorous “go to IOE” movement in the China.

The first problem: the hardware and software (IOE) required for the architecture is expensive.

As you can see in the schema diagram in Figure 1, Oracle uses a way to share storage among multiple nodes in order to ensure the consistency of transactions, That is to say, the final data is stored on the disk only once, the data can be read and write by multiple nodes. Oracle uses row locks and other technologies to solve the problem of read and write contention, and guarantee the consistency of each transaction request submission or rollback.

The application layer host is routed to different database nodes through Oracle Net Services. After submitting the database transaction request, the database node periodically writes the transaction data to the shared disk array.

We know that IO requests are very slow in computer requests, and this architectural design accentuates the performance bottleneck of IO reading and writing. Enterprises responded by buying better, more expensive disk arrays and improving IO performance, which led to the IOE architecture occupying the mainstream position of domestic IT procurement for a long time.

We know that IO requests are very slow in computer requests. This architecture design highlights the performance bottleneck of IO reading and writing. The corporate response is to purchase better and more expensive disk arrays and improve IO performance. This has also led to the IOE architecture occupying the mainstream of domestic IT procurement for a long period of time.

The second problem: limited scalability, increased node performance gains and nonlinear enhancement.

As mentioned above, it is limited by the performance bottleneck of IO requests. The transaction data of each node initiates an IO request to write data to disk at a certain interval. In this process, real-time transaction information is synchronized by the IPC protocol to transfer memory data between nodes. At this point we need a high-speed data transmission network, usually done by Gigabit NIC.

However, as the number of nodes continues to increase, the more transaction data needs to be synchronized and the network contention and row lock contention will become more serious, resulting in the performance gain and nonlinear enhancement of the extended nodes.

The second stage: the era of distributed databases.

With the rapid development of Taobao business, Taobao has become one of Oracle’s top clients in China since 2010. In order to reduce IT costs while meeting the further development needs of the business and given the long-term accumulation of technology driven in the open source community. In 2010, the Taobao technical team launched a vigorous “Go IOE” campaign with the goal of replacing the traditional Oracle DB architecture with a distributed open source database architecture. The success of Taobao’s “GO IOE” effectively verifies the load capacity of distributed database in large-scale production applications, which also led to the transformation of domestic IT architecture selection ideas and the evolution of distributed database architecture.

There are many kinds of distributed database schemes, which are commonly used in various Internet companies. The essence is to split the data into different nodes, thus alleviating the pressure of single-node reading and writing, such as splitting data by parity. It is a simple distributed system, the schematic is as follows:

When we split the data into distributed databases, we have to consider the trade-offs between the three features of distributed, as described by the CAP:

The system architect needs to optimize the three features of CAP according to the business, so that the result of the system can be consistent with the expectation of the business requirements.

Some of the mainstream distributed schemes seen so far have varying degrees of choice for each of the three features. When we were running our last startup project, OneAPM, we used Kafka, Zookeeper, Clickhouse and other architectures to meet the business needs in order to solve the huge amount of data generated by processing user access trajectories. The architecture diagram is as follows:

The third stage: Block chain era

From the perspective of database technology, the essence of blockchain is a multi-active distributed database with a specific architecture. Paxos, RAFT and other algorithms are used in distributed database to guarantee the strong consistency of multiple copies of the database. Block chain is a consensus algorithm to solve the problem of data consistency among the nodes.

POW, POS, DPOS and so on all kinds of consensus algorithms are essentially in competition which node will have the right to write to the block ( account data). In the design of the economic model of block chain, the behavior of writing block chain is encouraged economically, and the development of block chain ecology is greatly encouraged.

But it is precisely because each node is likely to have the right to write a block, and in order to guarantee the consistency of system data, a tradeoff must be made with the system’s response time. So we see that the TPS of bitcoin is 7:1 per second, and the TPS of Ethereum is only a few dozen services per second. The CAP problem in distributed databases is still a technical problem that the blockchain needs to challenge. Of course, with the emergence of new technologies such as fragmentation and lightning network, the bottleneck of transaction performance is continuously optimized.

In addition, from a product perspective, the current blockchain technology primarily provides the ability of transaction accounting, and can not support the standard ability of the database, so in terms of function, the current block chain is essentially a special subset of database technology stack In the blockchain, expanding the ability to add, delete, and modify files and data is a key capability for DAPP’s ecological development.

Looking at the three era’s of database system evolution, the wave of technological development cannot be stopped. All we can do is learn and face. Just as the distributed database replaces the traditional ORACLE cluster the decentralized model of blockchain technology will also iteratively centralize the model’s business system. From the current situation, the emergence of new technologies, such as fragmentation, lightning network, transaction performance bottleneck is constantly optimized, and the blockchain technology is gradually evolving to the mainstream IT architecture.

✅ Official Website and Social links.
🔹 Official website: http://www.lambda.im
🔹Telegram Community : https://t.me/HelloLambda
🔹Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Lambdaim
🔹LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/lambdaim/
🔹Twitter: https://twitter.com/Lambdaim
🔹White Paper : http://www.lambda.im/doc/Lambda-WhitePaper-en.pdf